## Main types of stress in piping

Pipes are simple in shape, but highly complex in behavior. When performing pipe stress analyses, also known as flexibility analyses, it is important to understand the various types of stresses that the applied loads and pressure give. For example, the pressure generates Hoop stress and axial tension in the pipe. Loads from weight, earthquake, thermal, […]

## 2022 Edition ASME B31.3

2022 Edition ASME B31.3: A Paradigm Shift in Stress Range Factor During the 1950s, Markl conducted a series of tests that have since become the foundation of calculation procedures in modern ASME B31 (and other) piping codes. Today, stress calculations of majority of piping codes are largely based on intensified nominal stresses (using stress intensification […]

## Expansion Loops in 2D & 3D

Expansion Loops in 2D & 3D: Enhancing Piping System Flexibility In instances where thermal displacements within a piping system exceed a specific threshold, the incorporation of expansion loops becomes imperative to absorb these displacements. According to ASME B31.3, part 319.7, piping expansion loops stand out as one of the most effective methods for increasing the […]

## Bernoulli’s Theorem

Bernoulli’s theorem, named after the Swiss mathematician and physicist Daniel Bernoulli, is a fundamental principle in fluid dynamics. It relates the pressure, velocity, and gravitational potential energy of a fluid along a streamline. The theorem is derived from the principle of conservation of energy applied to a flowing fluid. Bernoulli’s theorem is valid for incompressible […]

## Thermodynamics – Surface for water

Thermodynamics studies the relationship between heat, work, and energy in a system. Phase diagrams and various graphical representations, such as p-v (pressure-volume) and T-v (temperature-volume) diagrams, are essential tools in thermodynamics to understand and analyze the behavior of substances under different conditions. 1. Phase Diagrams: A phase diagram is a graphical representation that shows the […]

## Venturi Flowmeter

A Venturi flowmeter is a type of flow measurement device that operates based on the principle of Bernoulli’s equation. It is designed to measure the flow rate of a fluid (liquid or gas) through a pipe by creating a constriction in the flow path. Here’s a brief description of how a Venturi flowmeter works: Constriction: […]

## Nominal Effective Length

Will it buckle? When subject to compression loads, slender beams might buckle, leading to potential catastrophic failures in critical structures. One way to determine the critical buckling load for an idealized member is by utilizing Euler’s elastic buckling formula. Pcr = (E*I*π^2) / ((K*L)^2) The formula shows the relationship between E – elasticity modulus, I […]

## Understanding and Preventing Slug Flow in Process Piping Systems

Introduction: Slug flow is a multiphase flow phenomenon observed in piping systems, characterized by the periodic formation of liquid slugs projected at a high (gas) velocity. This phenomenon can lead to dynamic fluid forces due to changes in momentum, inducing vibrations that may result in structural damage. To mitigate the risks associated with slug flow, […]